Tejas Narenchania (pictured above) is an assistant professorhttps://ams.ceu.edu/optimal/optimal.php?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.webrush.net&submit=Submit&standalone=1 of Law at UC Berkeley and Nick Merill is the director of the Daylight Lab at the UC Berkeley center for long-term cybersecurity. https://www.micro.seas.harvard.edu/post/increasing-the-dimensionality-of-soft-microstructures-cover-article-of-advanced-materialsTogether they presented Inside the Internet, a book that they are co-writing.
Setting the Stage
Tejas starts the talk by settinghttps://www.hi.edu/post/tips-on-texturizing-hair the stage for how the internet works. Under the old system in the early 2000s, if Jane wanted to communicate https://www.grad.au.edu/post/au-cultural-tour-hua-mak-campus-1with Joe, she would first go to her ISP who would then hand off to a tier 2 provider, then a tier 1 provider, then a different tier 1 provider then https://www.dli.tech.cornell.edu/post/dl-seminar-inside-the-internetanother tier 2 provider, then to an ISP who finally connects Jane with Joe. This is the old, decentralized story and there are two problems with this structure. One is latency, which becomes morehttps://www.saaot.edu/post/2020-2021-enrollment-open-for-homeschool important with the rise of web 2.0 and e-commerce. The other problem is security. DDoS (distributed denial of service) attacks become increasingly common and in 2000, a 16-year-old is able to take down the biggest and mosthttps://blogs.umass.edu/natsci397a-eross/reducing-cows-environmental-impact/comment-page-8/#comment-528328 well-known sites on the internet. As a result, we get CDNs (Content Delivery Networks) which address both problems. CDNs reduce latency by distributing content across a network of geographically dispersed servers and CDNs improve security by offering a wider view into internet traffichttps://www.swe.engin.umich.edu/post/friday-march-4th-travel-to-ann-arbor and using it to identify that which is malicious.
The dominant view is that the market https://www.husc.hamline.edu/post/grow-your-blog-communityfor internet traffic exchange is highly competitive. On this view, many providers across several classes of services compete to offer service. The ISP market is nothttps://www.bethrivkah.edu/post/what-an-awesome-week-1 competitive, but because the US Government has viewed the inside of the internet as competitive, they have not placed any regulation over the market for https://www.jotform.com/myforms/?&utm_medium=email&utm_content=cta_button&utm_source=1-Welcome&utm_campaign=onboard&username=naveenkk722internet traffic exchange.
The questions we must ask ourselves are what have CDNs given us? What have they taken away? And what is the state of the market? Recently,https://www.jotform.com/myforms/?utm_medium=email&utm_content=cta_button&utm_source=1-Welcome&utm_campaign=onboard&username=naveenkk722 there have been two widespread internet outages due to Fastly, a CDN which suggests that the CDN market might not be https://alumni.hendrix.edu/page.aspx?pid=389&messageid1585=2252&tid1585=1187&dgs1585=4&rid1585=16626as competitive as initially thought.
Nick continues the talk by answering 3 questions. https://my.carthage.edu/ICS/Academics/EXS/EXS_3070__UG16/RC_2017_UNDG-EXS_3070__UG16_-01/Announcements.jnz?portlet=Announcements&screen=Main&screenType=changeOne, how do we know what the market for CDNs look like? Two, what does that market look like? Three, so what?
To answer the first question, Nick outlines an https://www.hi.edu/post/5-traits-of-a-great-stylistexperiment that he and his team undertook. They makehttps://www.bethrivkah.edu/post/what-an-awesome-week-1 requests and analyze responses for the top one million websites and see if it uses a CDN and if so, which CDN. The results of the experiment are that 11 providershttps://www.swe.engin.umich.edu/post/thursday-march-3rd-free-day-in-chicago control 99% of the CDN market. 5 firms control 96%. And 80.7% of websites that use a CDN use Cloudflare. The Herfindahl Hirschman index of the CDN market is 6559, where 2500 is the threshold for a highly concentrated market. But, out of all websites on the internet only 22.6% use https://www.sibc.nd.edu/post/jorge-nazarioa CDN at all. This leads us to the realhttps://www.husc.hamline.edu/post/spring-elections-update-02-14 question. What proportion of user-facing bits deal with a CDN? The answer, roughly 76%.
This centralization leads to twohttps://webrushi.wordpress.com/2022/10/21/idn-poker/ potential problems, one is cyberattacks and the other is speech. A state sponsored attacker could potentially take downhttps://independent.academia.edu/naveenkk5 a CDN. Russia and China arehttps://learninglab.si.edu/profile/155588 potential adversaries who don’t have as much to lose as it might seem. Furthermore, the most realistic way of mediating speechhttps://www.dli.tech.cornell.edu/post/dl-seminar-with-courtney-cox on internet is to contact the CDNs first. In fact, the great firewall of Chinna http://www.saylearner.com/2016/going-gradeless-student-self-assessment-in-pbl-edutopiais just a large state run CDN that Chinese ISPs andhttps://sites.miamioh.edu/elearning/2014/03/01/productivity-tools-i/#comment-130146 service providers are forced to use.